In the spring of 2016, Puget Sound juvenile salmon and sculpin were found to be on drugs - that is, the flesh of these fish was found to be contaminated with 81 different types of drugs and personal care chemicals. The list included Prozac, Advil, Benadryl, Lipitor and cocaine. The discovery was alarming and led to a slew of investigative reports on the reason behind the fish contamination. Several different possible explanations for the fish contamination were presented - was there a failure in wastewater treatment plants? Were septic tanks leaking?
It was found that about 97,000 pounds of chemicals are introduced to Puget Sound every year, and not all these chemicals are monitored in wastewater treatment. Even more concerning is that fact that the toxicity of many of the detected chemicals are poorly understood. Scientists in the region were most concerned with the environmental and ecological impacts of the contamination. Impacts on people were a minimal concern because juvenile salmon and sculpin are not typically eaten as food. However, studies have shown that fish migrating through Puget Sound’s contaminated water die at twice the rate of fish migrating through uncontaminated water. This could be because of the effects of chemicals on fish growth, immune function and antibiotic resistance.
It is important to note that Puget Sound is home to 106 public wastewater treatment plants, all of which discharge to the Sound. Reports show that effluent from different wastewater treatment displays regional differences in the chemicals present. This could be due to varied drug usage throughout the Sound, but even fish in the Nisqually Estuary, selected as a pristine control area, were observed to have contaminated flesh. This suggests that wastewater treatments plants throughout the region are likely are not effective at removing all chemicals from wastewater.
This regional contamination of salmon serves as a reality check that our chemical inputs to the environment have real effects on ecology. The incident was isolated to one year in one region, but the drugs found in the salmon are not regularly tested in water quality sampling. This means similar situations could be developing in other places into the
future, but without testing and sampling, we will not know.
Find more information in the links below:
Thank you to OCEAN Researcher Rae Taylor-Burns
OCEAN 35 shares some intriguing environmental concepts: People in Maine are starting to eat invasive crabs; NYC is experimenting with old toilets to grow oysters; someone developed a thermal powered piston for controlling greenhouse ventilation and why has it taken so long to come up with edible six pack rings? You will also find breaking updates on previous articles: Bees; Hand Sanitizers and Plastic Microbeads. And we also took a closer look at the 1,000 year rainfall event in Louisiana. OCEAN is the environmental education publication of Safe Harbor Environmental Services. This newsletter is intended
for you, our readers and you have our permission to share it wherever you feel it may be useful. Gordon Peabody, Editor of OCEAN
OCEAN: RESEARCH ARTICLE
In September of 2013 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration observed thousands of walruses hauling out on a barrier island off of Alaska. On September 12th an estimated 1,500 to 4,000 individuals present and by September 27th there were approximately 10,000. While similar events have been reported, scientists say it is a recent phenomenon. Walruses generally use floating ice in the Chukchi Sea to rest while feeding at sea but due to recent climate change and melting sea ice, it is more difficult for them—and other species, such as polar bears—to find resting areas.
According to Physics Today sea ice has reached its lowest area measurements since it began being measured in 1979-with a 55% decrease (7.5 million square kilometers to 3.4 million square kilometers). While sea ice has previously been very thick, containing multiple years of accumulation, the current sea ice is much thinner, containing just ice from one season. The more transparent ice is much quicker to melt (Martin).
The effects on the individual walruses is varied and widespread. They will be exposed to more stress, depleted food levels, more energy will need to be expended to find prey, trampling caused by stampedes of spooked walruses and increased predation (Knowles). Disease also spreads much faster in populations that are overcrowded. There is evidence that certain mollusks, crabs and fish are moving northward and the shift in the food base is of a negative consequence for bottom feeders such as walrus and seal that prey on these species (Martin). The walrus is currently listed as a “Threatened” species and the increase of stressors they face may push it over the edge to “Endangered.”
Thank You to OCEAN Researcher Nicole Smith
For more information regarding the 2013 haul out, as well as previous ones visit NOAA at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/newsreleases/2013/walrushaulout093013.htm.
Martin, Jeffries, et al. "The Arctic shifts to a new normal." Physics Today. American Institute of Physics. Web. 21 Jan 2014.
OCEAN: RESEARCH ARTICLE
This 2013 Pacific sea lion pupping season has been a dramatic one. Rehabilitation centers have been inundated with over a thousand emaciated and dehydrated pups since the beginning of 2013, making it a record year for rescuers. NOAA has declared this an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) and this is the 6th overall UME for California Sea Lions. According to NOAA, The Working Group on Marine Mammal UMEs lists 7 criteria to qualify something as a UME and an event has to meet one or more of these criteria to qualify as unusual:
- Marked increase in the magnitude or change in the nature of morbidity, mortality or strandings when compared to prior records.
- A temporal change in morbidity, mortality or strandings is occurring.
- A special change in morbidity, mortality or strandings is occurring.
- The species, age or sex composition of the affected animals is different than that of animals usually affected.
- Affected animals exhibit similar or unusual pathologic findings, behavior patterns, clinical signs, or general physical condition (e.g., blubber thickness).
- Potentially significant morbidity, mortality or stranding is observed in species, stocks or populations that are particularly vulnerable (e.g., listed as depleted, threatened or endangered or declining). For example, stranding of three or four right whales may be cause for great concern whereas stranding of a similar number of fin whales may not.
- Morbidity is observed concurrent with or as part of an unexplained continual decline of a marine mammal population, stock, or species.
This event most closely matches with item 1. above, however it likely qualifies under other criteria as well.
While the cause is currently undetermined, there are a few theories as to what is causing this mortality. The most publicized hypothesis is that due to less prey availability for these pinnipeds that the mothers are travelling further and for longer in search of food, making pups more likely to wander in search of their own sustenance. This is not only alarming for the health of the sea lion population but for the fisheries as well. Where did these fish go? What happened to cause such a drastic drop in population size? Answers to these questions are currently being sought out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and two other organizations have already gained preliminary results to the driving force behind this mystery.
Researchers from Australian Antarctic Division and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) provide some insight to this conundrum whilst studying climate change in Antarctica. With global temperatures rising, there have been substantial changes to phytoplankton abundance, which is an integral source of food to fish and krill. They suggest that the trophic level have been and will be affected soonest, causing a chain reaction up the food chain from microorganisms to large cetaceans. This would be in agreement with what is being witnessed in California with less fish present for the sea lion population.
Thank You to OCEAN Researcher Nicole Smith
For more information on California Sea Lions and other UMEs visit this link:
"2013 California Sea Lion Unusual Mortality Event in California." NOAA Fisheries. NOAA, 30 May 2013. Web. 4 Oct 2013. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/health/mmume/californiasealions2013.htm
Barlass, Tim. “Polar melt shakes up food chain.” The Sydney Morning Herald 7 April 2013. Web. 7 April 2013. http://www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/polar-melt-shakes-up-food-chain-20130406-2hdlx.html
Hillard, Gloria. “Starving Baby Sea Lions Flood Southern California Shores.” Npr.org 9 April 2013. Web. 9 April 2013. http://www.npr.org/2013/04/09/176586940/starving-baby-sea-lions-flood-southern-california-shores?ft=1&f=1001&sc=tw&utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter
OCEAN: RESEARCH ARTICLE Download "OCEAN 31"
Acidification and Oyster Mortality
Rising pH Levels Linked to Increased Spat Mortality. Economic, Ecological and Social Impacts on West Coast Oyster Industry
Ocean acidification is a present and future threat to a variety of ecosystems and biological processes (detailed in the OCEAN 30 issue by Safe Harbor), and one of the more recent and publicized victims of global warming is the oyster industry of the United States’ West Coast.
The oceans act like carbon sinks, and anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions have caused seawater to be 30% more acidic than pre-industrial times on a logarithmic scale. The eastern Pacific of the United States is particularly vulnerable to this decrease in pH because it already experiences deep upwelling and therefore inherently encounters more extreme acidic conditions more often. The driving force for the oyster farm failures along this shoreline is the inability for young oysters (known as spat) to develop successfully. The oysters are most vulnerable when young and just forming their calcium carbonate shells. This failure to thrive is due to a combination of extra energy required to form a shell (due to lack of necessary ions in the water now bound by acidic molecules) and possibly even dissipation of the fragile shells themselves.
Seed production in the Pacific Northwest plummeted 80% between 2005- 2009, with majority of the larvae dying within merely 2 days. To put into perspective how problematic this is the shellfish industry in this region contribute more than $250 million dollars to the economy annually and provides jobs for over 3,000 individuals. Parallel studies have started on the East Coast comparing conditions and bracing for future ocean acidification catastrophes. New Bedford, Massachusetts, is a major American port with shellfishing making up over 70% of its productivity, so job losses and community demographics would irreparably change for the worse if it is subjected to the consequences of ocean acidification like the Northwest Pacific has.
There has been much active research studying the mechanisms of spat failures and possible ways to rectify this problem both short and long term. One example is Bodega Bay Marine Lab of UC-Davis working with Hog Island Oyster Company based in Tomales Bay, California. Hog Island raises their oyster spat in different water conditions in order to see the effects of various water quality scenarios, including excessive rain, water run-off, on the seed. The seawater of these tanks can be modified in real time if shell degradation is observed and documented for future hatcheries. Bodega Bay Marine Lab in turn records these fine scale aquatic changes in real time. It models how projected increased acidity will affect oysters and other shellfish in 10, 50 and 100 years in the future, and also how possible adaptations to counteract these caustic circumstances could help or hurt the oyster harvests.
Many of these susceptible oyster farms in the Pacific Northwest are multi-generational, family run companies who have to quickly troubleshoot this regional (and imminently global) disaster by changing techniques, importing spat, and monitoring water chemistry in order to adapt. One family, the Taylors of Shelton, Washington, have a separate oyster hatchery prior to planting in the Puget Sound. Hatcheries have been forced to incessantly monitor the incoming seawater acidity and either shut down flow is the water is too corrosive or add seagrass or sodium carbonate to help neutralize it more. This is a drastic change of how these companies have done things historically, but these alterations are a necessity in order to adapt to the changing seawater.
This, however, is just a stop gap. Models predict that corrosive water will be more prevalent at the sea surface and ubiquitous, up to 150% more, by the end of the century. The oyster harvest in the Northwest Pacific could increase by 25% over the next 50 years. This area is the canary in the coal mine- it is the first to show effects of increased acidification and gives insight on the dynamics of how these sensitive ecosystems will react. There are many short and long term strategies being constructed in attempts to rectify the situation, especially because of potential devastating consequences rippling up the entire food web. This research alone, costs from tens to hundreds of million dollars to complete. It is not cheap researching this evolving problem due to fossil fuel emissions; however, losing any of these shellfishing stocks would be detrimental on a much larger scale and immeasurable effects to local economies.
Thank you to OCEAN Researcher Brigid McKenna
More information in the link below:
OCEAN: RESEARCH ARTICLE
There is evidence that the fisheries industry in the Gulf of Maine is changing which has become a challenge to the livelihood of fisherman. According to the Gulf of Maine Research institute the water temperatures in the area have increased by 0.26°C every year since 2004. As waters warm species travel north from their typical range to find preferential water temperatures.
The focus has generally been on cod, but this applies to all groundfish such as haddock, pollock and flounder which are typically managed together. It is believed that the cod are going to deeper offshore waters, but according to scientist John Annala, it is a bit of a mystery as to where they have gone as they aren’t showing up in surveys, including ones done in Canada. Fish from the Mid-Atlantic region have started moving north into the Gulf of Maine. The species that are being found most often include butterfish, long fin squid, black sea bass and summer flounder.
While it seems that the fisheries industry would be alright as they could just switch to fishing different species, it is more complicated than that. Different types of fish require different types of equipment to catch, which can be very costly. Also, management practices are not in place for species that have not typically been found in the area. There has also been an increase in lobster to the area, which would seem beneficial, but there has been an increase in lobsters that are shedding which sell for much less than the hard shell version.
Ecological issues can arise when new species move into an unusual territory. The new species may compete with the historical species for food and habitat and there may be a lack of predators in the new range to keep the new species in check. While some species may change their range, it is possible that they begin to change their habits to account for the change in temperature. Examples include feeding at different times of day or shifting diets to account for loss of previous diet staples. It is possible that the whole food web of an area is altered and if equilibrium isn’t reached the ecosystem could crash. Shell fishermen have also noticed an invasive green crab that has moved north with the warming waters and has become an unchecked predator. Phytoplankton are also affected by temperature. In the ‘90s there was an influx of cold water that caused the phytoplankton to thrive, leading to increased numbers of zooplankton and herring (Jacobson).As the water warms, phytoplankton, the base level of the food web, could be disrupted causing instability in subsequent levels. As the stability of the ecosystem decreases due to changing climate and species composition, it becomes more likely that it will not recover in the face of rapid change (Jacobson).
Thank You to OCEAN Researcher Nicole Smith
For more information on climate change in Maine and how it will disrupt not only the marine fisheries, but biodiversity and economics throughout the entire state go to http://climatechange.umaine.edu/files/Maines_Climate_Future.pdf and read the University of Maine document “Maine’s Climate Future: An Initial Assessment.”
This year's winter shrimp fishery in Maine failed to produce. The shrimp fishery failure has significant economic impacts for coastal communities. The possible causes may be changing water temperatures, poor management decisions, or over fishing. The shrimp fishery targets female shrimp just before they lay their eggs. The greater question is what lies ahead, socially, economically, and ecologically.
“Where have all the shrimp gone?”
One of New England’s most historically prolific fisheries is now in jeopardy with an uncertain future. The shrimp industry, which has been predominately utilized by Maine fisherman for over half a century, may be facing a new threat that could potentially cease its existence as we know it. The 2013 season has been lining up to be one of the least productive in its history, and if it gives insight to the oncoming years, then its outlook is bleak.
Shrimp cultivation in the Gulf of Maine has not been without its fluctuations and modifications. It formally began in 1938, as an inshore winter fisheries. It subsequently expanded to an offshore, year round endeavor that peaked in 1969, collapsed in 1977, and shut down in 1978. As a result of these events, stricter management was enforced to stabilize the stock. This meant limiting the season to three months peaking in late winter, setting daily and yearly limits as to how much may be caught, and even stipulating how many days per week one could fish. Additionally, the stock biomass level, a number calculated to support maximum sustainable yield and prevent overfishing, is set and referenced for these quotas. Since there is such range from year to year, federal and state agencies work together to constantly assess and compromise in consideration of both the shrimp and fishermen’s interests.
Exploitation of North Atlantic fisheries had not been limited to shrimp. Sardine canneries were once a fecund business in the U.S. beginning in the 19th Century, with over 400 factories based in Maine alone. Consisting of multiple species of herring, these small fish packed together proved to be a lucrative endeavor providing jobs in Maine until 2010, when the last processing facility in the country closed its doors. This was attributed to a difficult combination of decrease in consumer demand and an increase in government regulations for cultivating these fish.
Despite all of these cautionary measures put into place to preserve this shrimp stock, there has been a steady decline of shrimp caught in recent years, and may be the worst since it bottomed out in the late 70’s. In 2011, 13.3 million pounds of shrimp were netted, followed by 5.3 million in 2012. This year fishermen have been struggling to even reach half of the substantially lower allowable quota of 1.4 million pounds. Prices are reflecting this “bust,” and are close to $3.00 more per pound than last year. Regulators have attempted to assist fishermen with this struggle by loosening stipulations but it has not initiated a positive effect.
Some may argue that this stock came close to (or even teetered on) the tipping point previously when it had crashed completely in 1977, but then successfully rebounded. However, this occurrence was attributed to overfishing practices that were then corrected to allow regrowth of the population. It is thought that this recent trend of population decline could be due to warming ocean temperatures, an environmental variable much more difficult to influence.
The life cycle and seasonal transitions of the Gulf of Maine northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) have been cited as to how the fishery is managed. Mature shrimp live offshore where they mate late summer to early fall. Mature females carry the embryos until they travel inshore to release the larvae. These spawning females are the main target of the fisheries because of location, quality and sustainability. The shallow position they dwell in throughout winter makes trawling easier and safer. These are the best quality because post-hatching females deteriorate in body condition. It maintains the specie’s viability due to the fact that these females spawn once and die, so the practice is not taking any productive females out of the ecosystems.
Through much research efforts it has been determined that this annual migration inshore is temperature dependent, meaning that changing oceanic temperatures would have a significant impact on these crustaceans. These northern shrimp have adapted to local temperatures and, accordingly, mating occurs to coincide with phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton is the main food source of the larvae, and being off by a slight period of time, even a week, has been argued to have a monumental impact. Female shrimp carry their eggs for almost half a year, and evolved to release hatchlings when food is most abundant. Eggs hatching too early lead to a poorer survival rate and these shrimp are not capable to adapt fast enough as temperatures drastically change.
The question at the forefront of this issue is: what is causing this temperature increase in our oceans? This is a controversial topic at present with convoluted hypotheses. Could it be the naturally occurring North Atlantic Oscillation or Arctic Oscillation links? Is it due to an anthropogenic global warming? There is much research being conducted to find out exactly what systems are active to cause these climate changes, and it is also logically possible that it could be a combination of nature and manmade influences. No matter what, a likely certainty if this “trend” continues is that the Gulf of Maine northern shrimp stock will not be the only shrimp fisheries negatively affected down the road and we must be prepared for what the future may hold if this is the case.
Thank you to OCEAN Researcher Brigid McKenna
Clark, Stephen, Steven Cadrin, Daniel Schick, Paul Diodati, Michael Armstrong and
David McCarron. “The Gulf of Maine Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Fishery: a Review of the Record.” Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 27 (2000): 193-226. Web.
Gill, Victoria. “Shrimp tuned to ocean temperature.” BBC News, 7 May 2009. Web. 7
“Gulf of Maine shrimp fishery goes bust.” Associated Press. Morning Sentinel, 13 Mar
2013. Web. 13 Mar 2013.
Richards, Anne, Jay O’Reilly and Maureen Taylor. “Oceanographic Indicators of Fishery
Management of Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis).” NOAA Research proposal (2006).
Rudalevige, Christine Burns. “Maxing out the mini season for Maine shrimp.” NPR.org
24 Jan 2013. Web. 24 Jan 2013.
Visbeck, Martin, James Hurrell, Lorenzo Polvanis and Heidi Cullen. “The North Atlantic
Oscillation: Past, present, and future.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98.23 (2001): 12876-1877. Web. http://www.pnas.org/content/98/23/12876.full
OCEAN: RESEARCH ARTICLE
In mid-November 2013, Cyclone Cleopatra tore through the Italian island Sardinia, exacting long lasting damage in a matter of hours. The intense extratropical cyclone poured almost 18 inches of rain in an hour and a half and nearly destroyed this beloved western Mediterranean tourist destination. When rivers broke their banks it caused flash floods that swept away cars, washed bridges out and took the lives of at least 18 people.
A cyclone, by definition, is a system of winds that rotate around a low pressure area. They belong to a low pressure storm family that are categorized as cyclones, typhoons or hurricanes depending on geographical region. There are a variety of cyclone magnitudes ranging from mild to severe, with the largest of the low pressure systems being cold core and, as in this circumstance, extratropical. These mid-latitude cyclones can occur any time and are present in both hemispheres, and during the winter and when severe they are generally called “nor’easters.” Extratropical cyclones form as waves along weather fronts, and favor warm sea surface temperatures and atmospheric instability. Cyclone Cleopatra developed from northern cold air entering the Mediterranean and interacting with humid warm air, and because of increased sea surface temperatures due to climate change, it is highly possible that global warming strengthened this system since the difference between air and water temperature would be larger than before.
There was no choice by Italian officials other than to declare a state of emergency for this region within 24 hours of Cyclone Cleopatra’s commencement. It has been estimated that over 2,000 people had been affected by this natural disaster and £17 million for emergency relief has been allocated by the Italian government. The northeastern port city Olbia was among the most severely hit, and areas had been submerged in almost 10 feet of water-ruining roads and destroying homes. For comparison, the amount of water that fell in 90 minutes is comparable to the rainfall in the city of Milan over 6 months. A local mayor deemed the storm “apocalyptic,” and experts have stated that this locale has not experienced a storm of this calibre in centuries. Other towns were hit by heavy rains as well coupled with gale force winds, and the heavy rains continued to threaten other parts of Italy, including Rome and Venice, while moving east days later.
The geography of Sardinia has been devastated by Cyclone Cleopatra with its heavy rainfall and winds up to 58 mile per hour. Crops were ripped up and mud was spread across the landscape, which will affect agriculture production indefinitely in the region. Sardinia’s road and bridge infrastructure have been broken and severely damaged. This will not only impede access for relief efforts in the area but also yield the high priority task of rebuilding and repairing immediately. Italy has been in a fiscal recession for over two years, so these responsibilities may have unforeseen consequence by taking a higher toll on the unstable government and complicating restoration plans.
There are bureaucratic complications to this tragedy as well. Italy has experienced more than two years of recession so may not be well prepared to deal with this unexpected crisis financially. An alert system was in effect but the efficiency of it is questionable since evacuation orders had been ignored and it has been said that the weather predictions were understated. Though this event was due to a variety of factors, the risk was said to have been heightened by faulty construction of buildings, especially in coastal areas, and need for better emergency planning.
Needless to say that Cyclone Cleopatra has left a long road of healing and repair for the people of Sardinia. With climate change being very real, and the anthropogenic contributions to it, the potential of this or storms like this occurring again seems to be likely. Hopefully better, advanced preparations for these devastating natural disasters will minimize future detrimental effects and mortalities.
Thank You to OCEAN Researcher Brigid McKenna
For more information: